`Umar Ibn al-Khattab was the second caliph after Abu Bakr Siddiq. In the beginning, `Umar Ibn al-Khattab is an enemy of the most vicious and violent, against Muhammad and Islam all-out. But this situation changed when one day belaiu out of his house to kill the Prophet Shallahu ‘alaihi wa Sallama. Middle of the road to face with a man, he asks: Want to where you are, O ‘Umar?. ‘Umar said: I want to kill Muhammad. He asked again: How you can be safe from the Banu Hashim and Banu Zahrah, if you had killed Muhammad?. ‘Umar said: It is not I see you unless you have left agamu you. He asked: Would I show you to a more amazing again? Surely your sister (Fatima) and her husband (Khabab bin Al-Art) has left the religion that you are on it. At that, ‘Umar went straight to them. When Khabab was reading Letters Taha and find out the arrival of ‘Umar. Khabbab feel frightened into hiding. Likewise, direct Fatimah shahifah hide that had been read by her husband.
It was’ Umar had heard the reading Khabbab when he approached the house Khabbab. When ‘Umar entered his house, he asked: Reading what I heard was from you guys?. Khabbab and Fatimah replied: It’s just a word that we talked about among us. ‘Umar asked: Do you guys have been biased toward the Islamic religion?. Khabbab replied: How about if the truth is not in your religion?. ‘Umar stood kehadapannya and immediately stepped on it hard. When Fatimah approached her husband and help him, ‘Umar hit her. Fatimah’s anger with the act of ‘Umar, and said: What if the truth were not on agamu you?. Akkhirnya ‘Umar said syadatain when he began to despair of his actions and when he saw blood flowing from Fatima. ‘Umar sorry and embarrassed by this incident and realize that he has done stupidity on the right her sister and her husband. ‘Umar said: Give the book that is in you for my reading. Fatimah said: Verily ye dirty and this book is not touched unless the person – people who purified. ‘Umar got up and showered, kemuadian took the book. ‘Umar Ibn al-Khattab began reading the letter begins Taha with basmalah of paragraph 1 samapai verse 14 which reads:
أنني أنا الله لا إله إلا أنا فاعبدني وأقم الصلوة لذكري.
Indeed I am This is a God, there is no God (only) other than me, so worship Me and establish regular prayer for My remembrance.
‘Umar said: How beautiful and glorious book!, Tumjukkanlah to me the existence of Muhammad!. When Khabbab hear the speech of ‘Umar Ibn al-Khattab, he too delivering his message Rasululullah gembiran with alaihi wa Sallama and demonstrate the existence of Allah. ‘Umar went to the Prophet and announced that he had converted to Islam. From here ‘Umar turned into staunch supporters. `Umar then became the closest adviser to the Prophet Muhammad and that was done throughout the lifetime of Muhammad.
In 632 the Prophet Muhammad died, without pointing a replacement. Omar quickly supported Abu Bakr as successor, a close friend of the Prophet and his in-laws. This step allows the Abu Bakr is generally recognized as the first caliph. Abu Bakr was the leader of a successful but he died after two years after becoming caliph. However, Abu Bakr appointed `Umar became caliph in 634 and held power until the year 644.
Within ten years of `Umar’s leadership has made conquests. Shortly after `Umar came to power as Caliph, the Arab forces occupied Syria and Palestine, who was then a part of the Byzantine Empire. In the battle of Yarmuk (636), the Arab armies succeeded in beating out the power of Byzantium. Damascus fell in that year also, and Darussalam give up two years later. By the year 641, Arab forces had taken control of all Palestine and Syria, and keeps crashing forward into what is now called Turkey. Years 639, Arab armies invaded Egypt, which also was under Byzantine rule. Within three years, completed the conquest of Egypt perfectly.
Arab attack against Iraq which was under the authority of the Persian Empire had begun even before the Caliph `Umar rose. The key Arab victory lies in Qadisiyah battle that occurred 637 years during `Umar’s Caliphate. By the year 641, all of Iraq was under Arab control. And not only that: even the Arab armies immediately invaded Persia. And in the battle Nehavend (642) decisively beat them the last remaining Persian forces. By the death of `Umar in the year 644, most of the western region of Iran has fully terkuasai. As important as the meaning of conquests by `Umar was the permanence and stability reign. Iran, though its inhabitants converted to Islam, together with that they won independence from Arab governments. But Syria, Iraq and Egypt never get the same thing. Countries were entirely in-Arabkan until the present.
`Umar, of course, have a plan what should be done to areas that have been conquered by Arab forces. He decided, Arabs have special privileges in terms of the military in areas conquered, they must reside in certain towns designated for it, apart from the locals. Local residents must pay taxes to the Muslim conquerors (mostly Arabs), but they are allowed to live in safe and secure. In particular, they are not forced to embrace Islam. The success of `Umar’s really impressive. After the Prophet Muhammad, he is the main character in the case of invasion by Islam. Without conquest-conquest of lightning speed, doubt whether Islam can be spread widely, as can be witnessed today. Moreover, most of the conquered areas remained under Arab rule until now. Clearly, of course, mainly driven Muhammadlah if he should accept the award on this development. However, would be a serious mistake if we shrink the stock role of `Umar. Later conquests did not result automatically from the inspiration provided by Muhammad. The expansion might be able to happen, but probably not until that big. It was’ Umar memiiliki brilliant leadership.
السيرة النبوية لجامعة المدينة العالمية
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